Der Apollo war einer der Wichtigsten der olympischen Gottheiten im antiken Griechenland. Apollo war der Gott des Lichts, Heilung und Musik. Er ist der Sohn. Apollon (altgriechisch Ἀπόλλων, lateinisch Apollo, deutsch auch Apoll) ist in der griechischen und römischen Mythologie der Gott des Lichts, der Heilung, des. Apollo: God of the Sun Gods and Goddesses of Ancient Greece: ingatlanmonitor.com: Temple, Teri: Fremdsprachige Bücher.
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Ever since, nobody believes her — even though her prophecies are always right. She asked from her father, the river god Peneus , to be transformed into something else.
And just as Apollo was about to embrace her, she was — into a laurel tree. The god swore to love her forever and, ever since, he wears a laurel wreath as a token of his unhappy love.
After Cyparissus accidentally killed his pet-deer — which was gifted to him by Apollo — he asked his divine lover to let him be sorrowful forever.
So, Apollo unwillingly transformed Cyparissus into a cypress tree. The story of Hyacinthus is even sadder. He was a favorite of Apollo and he dearly loved the god back.
Apollo appears throughout most of the Greek literature. An embodiment of the Hellenic ideal of kalokagathia, he is harmony, reason and moderation personified, a perfect blend of physical superiority and moral virtue.
The parents of Apollo were Zeus and Leto. He was also lethal, killing anyone who crossed him. Apollo had just been born but even at only four days old, he was strong and able.
He had been given a silver bow with golden arrows from the blacksmith Hephaestus. Apollo wanted to seek revenge on Python for everything he had done to the Greeks, including chasing his mother while she was pregnant.
As he entered it, he was greeted by the monster who was already furious that the young boy had come after him.
He lunged at Apollo and attempted to snatch him but Apollo was faster. He shot an arrow at the Python and it pierced him in the forehead.
The Python screamed in pain so loudly that all of Greece heard it. He did everything he could to save himself but he succumbed to his injury.
Apollo was thrilled to have saved the Greeks from the Python. He reached for his lyre and played a song of victory for everyone to hear.
The song was so perfect that it earned him the title of god of music. After the song was complete, the young boy took the body of his victim and buried it beneath the slopes of Mount Parnassus.
On top of it, he build the oracle of Delphi, which would became the most famous oracle in the land. Even though he had gotten rid of the dreaded Python, his actions were still considered a crime by the laws of Mount Olympus.
Zeus punished him by ordering him to institute the Pythian Games at Delphi. There were athletic and musical competitions and Apollo even took part in some of them.
The games were then held every four years as a tribute to Apollo. In Greco - Roman mythology, Apollo is a deity of manifold function and meaning.
He is one of the most widely revered and influential of all the ancient Greek and Roman gods. From the time of Homer onward, Apollo was the god of divine distance—the god who made mortals aware of their own guilt and purified them of it, who presided over religious law and the constitutions of cities, and who communicated with mortals his knowledge of the future and the will of his father, Zeus.
He was also a god of crops and herds. In art, Apollo was represented as a beardless youth, either naked or robed. He was also often depicted with one or both of his two main attributes: a bow and a lyre.
The bow symbolized distance, death, terror, and awe, while the lyre more gently proclaimed the joy of communion with Olympus through music, poetry, and dance.
Apollo had many love affairs, though most had unfortunate endings. In art Apollo was represented as a beardless youth, either naked or robed.
Distance, death, terror, and awe were summed up in his symbolic bow. A gentler side of his nature, however, was shown in his other attribute, the lyre , which proclaimed the joy of communion with Olympus the home of the gods through music, poetry, and dance.
Though Apollo was the most Hellenic of all gods, he derived mostly from a type of god that originated in Anatolia and spread to Egypt by way of Syria and Palestine.
He was the giver of laws, and his oracles were consulted before setting laws in a city. As the god of Mousike art of Muses , Apollo presides over all music, songs, dance and poetry.
He is the inventor of string-music, and the frequent companion of the Muses, functioning as their chorus leader in celebrations.
The lyre is a common attribute of Apollo. In Hellenistic times, especially during the 5th century BCE, as Apollo Helios he became identified among Greeks with Helios , the personification of the sun.
The etymology of the name is uncertain. Several instances of popular etymology are attested from ancient authors.
Like other Greek deities, he had a number of others applied to him, reflecting the variety of roles, duties, and aspects ascribed to the god.
However, while Apollo has a great number of appellations in Greek myth, only a few occur in Latin literature. Apollo's birthplace was Mount Cynthus on the island of Delos.
Delphi and Actium were his primary places of worship. Apollo was worshipped throughout the Roman Empire. In the traditionally Celtic lands, he was most often seen as a healing and sun god.
He was often equated with Celtic gods of similar character. The Delos sanctuary was primarily dedicated to Artemis , Apollo's twin sister. At Delphi, Apollo was venerated as the slayer of Python.
For the Greeks, Apollo was all the gods in one and through the centuries he acquired different functions which could originate from different gods.
In archaic Greece he was the prophet , the oracular god who in older times was connected with "healing". In classical Greece he was the god of light and of music, but in popular religion he had a strong function to keep away evil.
The inspiration oracular-cult was probably introduced from Anatolia. The ritualism belonged to Apollo from the beginning.
The Greeks created the legalism , the supervision of the orders of the gods, and the demand for moderation and harmony.
Apollo became the god of shining youth, ideal beauty, fine arts, philosophy, moderation, spiritual-life, the protector of music, divine law and perceptible order.
The improvement of the old Anatolian god, and his elevation to an intellectual sphere, may be considered an achievement of the Greek people.
He did not have a separate cult, but he was the personification of the holy magic-song sung by the magicians that was supposed to cure disease.
In the Iliad , Apollo is the healer under the gods, but he is also the bringer of disease and death with his arrows, similar to the function of the Vedic god of disease Rudra.
The god who sends a disease can also prevent it; therefore, when it stops, they make a purifying ceremony and offer him a hecatomb to ward off evil.
When the oath of his priest appeases, they pray and with a song they call their own god, the Paean. Homer illustrated Paeon the god and the song both of apotropaic thanksgiving or triumph.
About the 4th century BCE, the paean became merely a formula of adulation; its object was either to implore protection against disease and misfortune or to offer thanks after such protection had been rendered.
It was in this way that Apollo had become recognized as the god of music. Apollo's role as the slayer of the Python led to his association with battle and victory; hence it became the Roman custom for a paean to be sung by an army on the march and before entering into battle, when a fleet left the harbour, and also after a victory had been won.
The connection with the Dorians and their initiation festival apellai is reinforced by the month Apellaios in northwest Greek calendars. Stones played an important part in the cult of the god, especially in the oracular shrine of Delphi Omphalos.
The " Homeric hymn " represents Apollo as a Northern intruder. His arrival must have occurred during the " Dark Ages " that followed the destruction of the Mycenaean civilization and his conflict with Gaia Mother Earth was represented by the legend of his slaying her daughter the serpent Python.
The earth deity had power over the ghostly world and it is believed that she was the deity behind the oracle. Apollo and his sister Artemis can bring death with their arrows.
The conception that diseases and death come from invisible shots sent by supernatural beings, or magicians is common in Germanic and Norse mythology.
The Vedic Rudra has some similar functions with Apollo. The terrible god is called "the archer" and the bow is also an attribute of Shiva.
It seems an oracular cult existed in Delphi from the Mycenaean age. The double-axe, labrys , was the holy symbol of the Cretan labyrinth.
Apollo Delphinios or Delphidios was a sea-god especially worshiped in Crete and in the islands. In her earliest depictions she is accompanied by the "Master of the animals", a male god of hunting who had the bow as his attribute.
His original name is unknown, but it seems that he was absorbed by the more popular Apollo, who stood by the virgin "Mistress of the Animals", becoming her brother.
The old oracles in Delphi seem to be connected with a local tradition of the priesthood and there is not clear evidence that a kind of inspiration-prophecy existed in the temple.
This led some scholars to the conclusion that Pythia carried on the rituals in a consistent procedure through many centuries, according to the local tradition.
In that regard, the mythical seeress Sibyl of Anatolian origin, with her ecstatic art, looks unrelated to the oracle itself. It is more probable that this art was introduced later from Anatolia and regenerated an existing oracular cult that was local to Delphi and dormant in several areas of Greece.
A non-Greek origin of Apollo has long been assumed in scholarship. The inspiration oracular cult was probably introduced into Greece from Anatolia , which is the origin of Sibyl , and where existed some of the oldest oracular shrines.
Omens, symbols, purifications, and exorcisms appear in old Assyro - Babylonian texts, and these rituals were spread into the empire of the Hittites.
In a Hittite text is mentioned that the king invited a Babylonian priestess for a certain "purification". A similar story is mentioned by Plutarch.
He writes that the Cretan seer Epimenides purified Athens after the pollution brought by the Alcmeonidae and that the seer's expertise in sacrifices and reform of funeral practices were of great help to Solon in his reform of the Athenian state.
It seems that these rituals were dormant in Greece and they were reinforced when the Greeks migrated to Anatolia. Homer pictures Apollo on the side of the Trojans , fighting against the Achaeans , during the Trojan War.
He is pictured as a terrible god, less trusted by the Greeks than other gods. The god seems to be related to Appaliunas , a tutelary god of Wilusa Troy in Asia Minor, but the word is not complete.
Here we have an apotropaic situation, where a god originally bringing the plague was invoked to end it. Aplu, meaning the son of , was a title given to the god Nergal , who was linked to the Babylonian god of the sun Shamash.
Unusually among the Olympic deities, Apollo had two cult sites that had widespread influence: Delos and Delphi. In cult practice, Delian Apollo and Pythian Apollo the Apollo of Delphi were so distinct that they might both have shrines in the same locality.
Apollo became extremely important to the Greek world as an oracular deity in the archaic period , and the frequency of theophoric names such as Apollodorus or Apollonios and cities named Apollonia testify to his popularity.
Oracular sanctuaries to Apollo were established in other sites. In the 2nd and 3rd century CE, those at Didyma and Claros pronounced the so-called "theological oracles", in which Apollo confirms that all deities are aspects or servants of an all-encompassing, highest deity.
Julian the Apostate — tried to revive the Delphic oracle, but failed. Apollo had a famous oracle in Delphi, and other notable ones in Claros and Didyma.
Many temples were dedicated to Apollo in Greece and the Greek colonies. They show the spread of the cult of Apollo and the evolution of the Greek architecture, which was mostly based on the rightness of form and on mathematical relations.
Some of the earliest temples, especially in Crete , do not belong to any Greek order. It seems that the first peripteral temples were rectangular wooden structures.
The different wooden elements were considered divine , and their forms were preserved in the marble or stone elements of the temples of Doric order.
The Greeks used standard types because they believed that the world of objects was a series of typical forms which could be represented in several instances.
The temples should be canonic , and the architects were trying to achieve this esthetic perfection. The first buildings were built narrowly in order to hold the roof, and when the dimensions changed some mathematical relations became necessary in order to keep the original forms.
This probably influenced the theory of numbers of Pythagoras , who believed that behind the appearance of things there was the permanent principle of mathematics.
The Doric order dominated during the 6th and the 5th century BC but there was a mathematical problem regarding the position of the triglyphs, which couldn't be solved without changing the original forms.
The order was almost abandoned for the Ionic order , but the Ionic capital also posed an insoluble problem at the corner of a temple.
Both orders were abandoned for the Corinthian order gradually during the Hellenistic age and under Rome. Apollo appears often in the myths, plays and hymns.
As Zeus' favorite son, Apollo had direct access to the mind of Zeus and was willing to reveal this knowledge to humans. A divinity beyond human comprehension, he appears both as a beneficial and a wrathful god.
Apollo was the son of Zeus, the king of the gods, and Leto, his previous wife  or one of his mistresses. Growing up, Apollo was nursed by the nymphs Korythalia and Aletheia , the personification of truth.
When Zeus' wife Hera discovered that Leto was pregnant, she banned Leto from giving birth on terra firma.
Leto sought shelter in many lands, only to be rejected by them. Finally, the voice of unborn Apollo informed his mother about a floating island named Delos which had once been Asteria , Leto's own sister.
All the goddesses except Hera were present to witness the event. It is also stated that Hera kidnapped Eileithyia , the goddess of childbirth, to prevent Leto from going into labor.
The other gods tricked Hera into letting her go by offering her a necklace of amber 9 yards or 8. When Apollo was born, clutching a golden sword,  everything on Delos turned into gold  and the island was filled with ambrosial fragrance.
Since Leto was unable to feed the him, Themis , the goddess of divine law, fed him with nectar, or ambrosia. Upon tasting the divine food, Apollo broke free of the bands fastened onto him and declared that he would be the master of lyre and archery, and interpret the will of Zeus to humankind.
Apollo's birth fixed the floating Delos to the earth. According to some, Apollo secured Delos to the bottom of the ocean after some time. The seventh and twentieth, the days of the new and full moon, were ever afterwards held sacred to him.
Hyperborea , the mystical land of eternal spring, venerated Apollo above all the gods. The Hyperboreans always sang and danced in his honor and hosted Pythian games.
Apollo spent the winter months among the Hyperboreans. No prophecies were issued during this time. The Theophania festival was held in Delphi to celebrate his return.
It is said that Leto came to Delos from Hyperborea accompanied by a pack of wolves. Henceforth, Hyperborea became Apollo's winter home and wolves became sacred to him.
His intimate connection to wolves is evident from his epithet Lyceus , meaning wolf-like. But Apollo was also the wolf-slayer in his role as the god who protected flocks from predators.
The Hyperborean worship of Apollo bears the strongest marks of Apollo being worshipped as the sun god. Shamanistic elements in Apollo's cult are often liked to his Hyperborean origin, and he is likewise speculated to have originated as a solar shaman.
In myths, the tears of amber Apollo shed when his son Asclepius died became the waters of the river Eridanos, which surrounded Hyperborea. Apollo also buried in Hyperborea the arrow which he had used to kill the Cyclopes.
He later gave this arrow to Abaris. As a child, Apollo is said to have built a foundation and an altar on Delos using the horns of the goats that his sister Artemis hunted.
Since he learnt the art of building when young, he later came to be known as Archegetes , the founder of towns and god who guided men to build new cities.
In his early years when Apollo spent his time herding cows, he was reared by Thriae , the bee nymphs, who trained him and enhanced his prophetic skills.
He then taught to the humans the art of healing and archery. Themis inspired him to be the oracular voice of Delphi thereon.
Python , a chthonic serpent-dragon, was a child of Gaea and the guardian of the Delphic Oracle , whose death was foretold by Apollo when he was still in Leto's womb.
Python was sent by Hera to hunt the pregnant Leto to death, and had assaulted her. To avenge the trouble given to his mother, Apollo went in search of Python and killed it in the sacred cave at Delphi with the bow and arrows that he had received from Hephaestus.
The Delphian nymphs who were present encouraged Apollo during the battle with the cry "Hie Paean ". After Apollo was victorious, they also brought him gifts and gave the Corycian cave to him.
According to another version, when Leto was in Delphi, Python had attacked her. Apollo defended his mother and killed Python.
You killed him, o Phoebus, while still a baby, still leaping in the arms of your dear mother, and you entered the holy shrine, and sat on the golden tripod, on your truthful throne distributing prophecies from the gods to mortals.
A detailed account of Apollo's conflict with Gaea and Zeus' intervention on behalf of his young son is also given. But when Apollo came and sent Themis, the child of Earth, away from the holy oracle of Pytho, Earth gave birth to dream visions of the night; and they told to the cities of men the present, and what will happen in the future, through dark beds of sleep on the ground; and so Earth took the office of prophecy away from Phoebus, in envy, because of her daughter.
The lord made his swift way to Olympus and wound his baby hands around Zeus, asking him to take the wrath of the earth goddess from the Pythian home.
Zeus smiled, that the child so quickly came to ask for worship that pays in gold. He shook his locks of hair, put an end to the night voices, and took away from mortals the truth that appears in darkness, and gave the privilege back again to Loxias.
Apollo also demanded that all other methods of divination be made inferior to his, a wish that Zeus granted him readily. Because of this, Athena, who had been practicing divination by throwing pebbles, cast her pebbles away in displeasure.
However, Apollo had committed a blood murder and had to be purified. Apollo had to serve as a slave for nine years. Purified, Apollo was escorted by his half sister Athena to Delphi where the oracular shrine was finally handed over to him by Gaea.
Apollo later established the Pythian games to appropriate Gaea. Henceforth, Apollo became the god who cleansed himself from the sin of murder and, made men aware of their guilt and purified them.
Soon after, Zeus instructed Apollo to go to Delphi and establish his law. But Apollo, disobeying his father, went to the land of Hyperborea and stayed there for a year.
Zeus, pleased with his son's integrity, gave Apollo the seat next to him on his right side. He also gave to Apollo various gifts, like a golden tripod, a golden bow and arrows, a golden chariot and the city of Delphi.
Soon after his return, Apollo needed to recruit people to Delphi. So, when he spotted a ship sailing from Crete, he sprang aboard in the form of a dolphin.
The crew was awed into submission and followed a course that led the ship to Delphi. There Apollo revealed himself as a god. Initiating them to his service, he instructed them to keep righteousness in their hearts.
The Pythia was Apollo's high priestess and his mouthpiece through whom he gave prophecies. Pythia is arguably the constant favorite of Apollo among the mortals.
Hera once again sent another giant, Tityos to rape Leto. This time Apollo shot him with his arrows and attacked him with his golden sword. According to other version, Artemis also aided him in protecting their mother by attacking Tityos with her arrows.
Admetus was the king of Pherae , who was known for his hospitality. When Apollo was exiled from Olympus for killing Python, he served as a herdsman under Admetus, who was then young and unmarried.
Apollo is said to have shared a romantic relationship with Admetus during his stay. Because Admetus had treated Apollo well, the god conferred great benefits on him in return.
Apollo's mere presence is said to have made the cattle give birth to twins. He was present during their wedding to give his blessings.
When Admetus angered the goddess Artemis by forgetting to give her the due offerings, Apollo came to the rescue and calmed his sister.
According to another version, or perhaps some years later, when Zeus struck down Apollo's son Asclepius with a lightning bolt for resurrecting the dead, Apollo in revenge killed the Cyclopes , who had fashioned the bolt for Zeus.
Zeus obliged and sentenced Apollo to one year of hard labor once again under Admetus. The fate of Niobe was prophesied by Apollo while he was still in Leto's womb.
She displayed hubris when she boasted that she was superior to Leto because she had fourteen children Niobids , seven male and seven female, while Leto had only two.
She further mocked Apollo's effeminate appearance and Artemis' manly appearance. Leto, insulted by this, told her children to punish Niobe. Accordingly, Apollo killed Niobe's sons, and Artemis her daughters.
According to some versions of the myth, among the Niobids, Chloris and her brother Amyclas were not killed because they prayed to Leto.
Amphion, at the sight of his dead sons, either killed himself or was killed by Apollo after swearing revenge. Her tears formed the river Achelous.
Zeus had turned all the people of Thebes to stone and so no one buried the Niobids until the ninth day after their death, when the gods themselves entombed them.
When Chloris married and had children, Apollo granted her son Nestor the years he had taken away from the Niobids.
Hence, Nestor was able to live for 3 generations. Apollodorus states that the gods willingly went to the king disguised as humans in order to check his hubris.
In Ovid's account, Apollo completes his task by playing his tunes on his lyre. In Pindar 's odes, the gods took a mortal named Aeacus as their assistant.
Apollo immediately prophesied that Troy would fall at the hands of Aeacus's descendants, the Aeacidae i. Later, his great grandson Neoptolemus was present in the wooden horse that lead to the downfall of Troy.
However, the king not only refused to give the gods the wages he had promised, but also threatened to bind their feet and hands, and sell them as slaves.
Angered by the unpaid labour and the insults, Apollo infected the city with a pestilence and Posedion sent the sea monster Cetus.
To deliver the city from it, Laomedon had to sacrifice his daughter Hesione who would later be saved by Heracles. During his stay in Troy, Apollo had a lover named Ourea, who was a nymph and daughter of Poseidon.
Together they had a son named Ileus, whom Apollo loved dearly. During the war, the Greek king Agamemnon captured Chryseis , the daughter of Apollo's priest Chryses , and refused to return her.
Angered by this, Apollo shot arrows infected with the plague into the Greek encampment. He demanded that they return the girl, and the Achaeans Greeks complied, indirectly causing the anger of Achilles , which is the theme of the Iliad.
Receiving the aegis from Zeus, Apollo entered the battlefield as per his father's command, causing great terror to the enemy with his war cry.
He pushed the Greeks back and destroyed many of the soldiers. He is described as "the rouser of armies" because he rallied the Trojan army when they were falling apart.
When Zeus allowed the other gods to get involved in the war, Apollo was provoked by Poseidon to a duel. However, Apollo declined to fight him, saying that he wouldn't fight his uncle for the sake of mortals.
When the Greek hero Diomedes injured the Trojan hero Aeneas , Aphrodite tried to rescue him, but Diomedes injured her as well.
Apollo then enveloped Aeneas in a cloud to protect him. He repelled the attacks Diomedes made on him and gave the hero a stern warning to abstain himself from attacking a god.
Aeneas was then taken to Pergamos, a sacred spot in Troy , where he was healed. After the death of Sarpedon , a son of Zeus, Apollo rescued the corpse from the battlefield as per his father's wish and cleaned it.
He then gave it to Sleep Hypnos and Death Thanatos. Apollo had also once convinced Athena to stop the war for that day, so that the warriors can relieve themselves for a while.
The Trojan hero Hector who, according to some, was the god's own son by Hecuba  was favored by Apollo.
When he got severely injured, Apollo healed him and encouraged him to take up his arms. During a duel with Achilles, when Hector was about to lose, Apollo hid Hector in a cloud of mist to save him.
When the Greek warrior Patroclus tried to get into the fort of Troy, he was stopped by Apollo. Encouraging Hector to attack Patroclus, Apollo stripped the armour of the Greek warrior and broke his weapons.
Patroclus was eventually killed by Hector. At last, after Hector's fated death, Apollo protected his corpse from Achilles' attempt to mutilate it by creating a magical cloud over the corpse.
Apollo held a grudge against Achilles throughout the war because Achilles had murdered his son Tenes before the war began and brutally assassinated his son Troilus in his own temple.
Not only did Apollo save Hector from Achilles, he also tricked Achilles by disguising himself as a Trojan warrior and driving him away from the gates.
He foiled Achilles' attempt to mutilate Hector's dead body. Finally, Apollo caused Achilles' death by guiding an arrow shot by Paris into Achilles ' heel.
In some versions, Apollo himself killed Achilles by taking the disguise of Paris. Apollo helped many Trojan warriors, including Agenor , Polydamas , Glaucus in the battlefield.
Though he greatly favored the Trojans, Apollo was bound to follow the orders of Zeus and served his father loyally during the war.
After Heracles then named Alcides was struck with madness and killed his family, he sought to purify himself and consulted the oracle of Apollo.
Apollo, through the Pythia, commanded him to serve king Eurystheus for twelve years and complete the ten tasks the king would give him.
Only then would Alcides be absolved of his sin. Apollo also renamed him as Heracles. To complete his third task, Heracles had to capture the Ceryneian Hind , a hind sacred to Artemis, and bring it alive.
He chased the hind for one year.